Bellemain et al. (2005) relied on moose hunters in Norway to collect fecal samples from brown bears. Each sample was genotyped, and the number of distinct individuals was found in each of 2001 and 2002. In 2001, 311 unique genotypes were obtained (134 males and 177 females). In 2002, the procedure was repeated and 239 unique genotypes were obtained (106 males and 133 females). 165 of the individuals sampled in 2001 were also sampled in 2002.
a. Fifty-six bears in the area in 2001 had also been followed with radio transmitters; 36 of these bears were represented in the 311 genotypes from the 2001 feces samples. Estimate the number of bears in 2001, along with a 95% CI.
b. In 2002, 57 bears had radio transmitters, and 28 of them were among the 239 genotypes from the 2002 feces samples. Estimate the number of bears in 2002, along with a 95% CI.
c. Estimate the number of bears, along with a 95% CI, treating the samples from 2001 and 2002 as independent SRSs (and ignoring the radio transmitter data). What assumptions are needed to use capture–recapture estimators of population size?

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